The history of Chinese gold miners

Chinese gold miners
Chinese gold miners

There were many Chinese gold miners who participated in the Fraser River gold rush. Many of them were experienced prospectors who had panned for gold in California. Just as many had panned for gold back home in China.

The Chinese were mining gold by 1300 BC. They had systematic ways to prospect for it. In the 7th century an official wrote, “If the upper soil contains cinnabar, the lower will contain gold.” They had also discovered that plants were a key indicator of what lay beneath the surface. “If in the mountain grow spring shallots, there will be silver under the ground; if leek in the mountain, gold.”

The Chinese also had interesting ways of clearing the gold from other debris. They panned for gold and washed as much debris away as they could, then they mixed what was left with chaff, and fed it to ducks. Later they collected the droppings, panned out the gold a second time, mixed the refined gold with another batch of chaff and fed it to the ducks. They did this process three times and then they fed the ducks a final batch of chaff to collect any gold bits left behind. This brings to mind the old saying, “don’t kill the goose that lays the golden eggs”.

At the beginning of the first millenium, China’s rulers owned gold reserves of 200 tons, about the same as the Roman Empire. Then the mining collapsed. When the Mongols came to power in 1300 AD they tried to turn the gold mines around. They ordered 4,000 households in Shandong to pan for gold. They supressed bandits and removed tyrants who were robbing the mines, and warned their own generals not to steal gold.

Wei Zhongxian, a former criminal and gambler, obtained a position in the imperial household, which was advantageous because creditors were not allowed to pursue him in the Forbidden City. When the crown prince became emperor Wei began his climb to power. He built shrines and statues to himself and adopted the title Nine Thousand Years. The emperor, known by custom as Ten Thousand Years, gave Wei the Linglong Mine in 1621.

According to legend, a river flowed into the sky from the peach orchard of the Grand Old Lady of the West to a peak in the Linglong hills. The river fed streams that flowed down the mountain and collected in a basin. One day a hunter discovered a pool teeming with gold fish. They leapt from the surface and spewed streams of golden liquid. When news of this pool reached the imperial court they sent an official to Shandong. The official was so overwhelmed at the sight of the gold fish that he dove into the pool and disappeared. A second emissary arrived and found the pool dry. Not wanting to return to the Forbidden City with bad news, he ordered 10,000 peasants to dig in the mountain for the fish. They found the Linglong gold.

Wei ran the Linlong mine for six years and the country’s gold production increased to 40,000 ounces a year. When the emperor died, Wei’s enemies killed him. Seventeen years later the dynasty collapsed and so did Linglong.

The new Manchu rulers believed that the gold veins were that of dragons’ and digging them up would disrupt spatial harmony. On a practical note, the Manchu feared that the gold could finance an insurrection amongst the people they had conquered. Subsequently, they decreed an end to gold mining and they executed those they caught digging for gold illegally.

The last gold bars left the Chinese treasury in 1842, in reparation payments to the foreign occupying powers – Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan. It was at that point the ruling Dowager Empress repealed the gold mining prohibition. In actual fact, the mining had never stopped.

During the time of the prohibition, a British colonial official stationed in Burma wrote “by far the larger portion of all the gold used [in Burma] is brought from China. It is imported in the form of thin leaves of gold made up into little packets, each packet weighing about one viss [3.6 pounds].” Gold had also leaked out of China along the Himalayan smuggling routes. When the gold mining prohibition ended, the gold simply headed back to the domestic market.

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A gold seeker’s diary May 1863

A gold seeker’s diary of his journey to William’s Creek in May 1863 was later published in a book by Matthew MacFie, “Vancouver Island and British Columbia: Their History, Resources and Prospects”. Here are a few entries from the time the gold seeker left Victoria and travelled up the Harrison-Lillooet trail from Port Douglas which was commonly known as ‘Douglas’.

May 8th. Left Victoria at 9 a.m. Arrived at New Westminster at 4.30 p.m. Had a pleasant passage, the day being warm and calm. Put up at the ‘Mansion House;’ slept in my own blankets on the floor in company with several others, free of charge.

Douglas, BC
Douglas, BC

Saturday, 9th. Left New Westminster for Douglas at 3.30 p.m. Anchored at dark, 40 miles up the river. Slept soundly on the saloon floor.

Sunday, 10th. Started early; got into Harrison River at 8 a.m. Great contrast between the two rivers – the Fraser very muddy- the Harrison as clear as glass… Arrived at Douglas at 3 p.m. Travelled 12 miles further on; pitched our tents in the bush.

Monday, 11th. Got up at daybreak; cooked breakfast, and started for the head of Lillooet Lake, distant 17 miles. Arrived there at 3.30 p.m. Could not sleep at night for the mosquitoes, the tent being full of them. The road from Douglas to the lake is one continued ‘gulch’ between two ranges of mountains, called the ‘Cascades.’…There are roadhouses every few miles, where meals can be had at a dollar (4s. 2d.) each…

Tuesday, 12th. Started on our journey along the Lillooet Lake at 7:30 am. Had to go in a barge for six miles before we got to the steamboat. Arrived at Pemberton at 2 pm. From the foot of Tenass (little) Lake to the head of Lilloet Lake is 25 1/2 miles…At Pemberton we took the waggon-road, and travelled 8 miles same day. About 20 of us slept on the floor of the 8-mile house in the usual style…

Wednesday, 13th. Started early. Arrived at Anderson Lake, distant 26 miles from Pemberton, in good time in the afternoon. We passed through…rich prairie called ‘the Meadows,’ 7 or 8 miles long, and from half a mile to a mile wide. Beyond the half-way house is a watershed, 1,482 feet above the level of the sea. From the road is seen a roaring cataract dashing from the snowy summits of the mountains…Made a tent of one of my blankets; could not sleep, the other being too short for me…

Thursday, 14th. On board the steamer at 8 am. Lake Anderson, 16 miles long…Arrived at Port Seaton [Seton] at 3pm. Lake Seaton, the last in the chain of lakes, is 14 miles long, lying west and east, and is only 1 1/2 miles from Lake Anderson. Scenery on both lakes is charming; the hills rising abruptly out of the water as clear and tranquil as I have ever seen. Travelled to Lilloet, distant 3 1/2 miles. In approaching it the hills recede. It is a pretty place; a flat surrounded by mountains. There are a few patches of arable land, but sand seems to prevail. All along from Douglas the country looks barren; hardly a blade of grass to be seen, or a spot level enough to pitch a tent on.

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The gold rush at Goldstream, BC

At the beginning of October 1863, a party of four miners were sent out by Governor James Douglas to prospect for gold in the Victoria area. Ten days later, they returned and reported that they had discovered diggings paying 4 or 5 cents to the pan at a stream flowing into Gold or Deadman’s Creek.

“A number of persons carrying packs and mining tools started for the scene of new excitement. The new “Douglas Diggings” at Goldstream presented the appearance of a thorough mining locality possessing every facility for working. The proximity of the location would tender the working expenses trifling; mining would be easy owing to excellent facilities for washing and the shallowness of the diggings; and, the road was accessible as a dray could be taken within four miles of the spot, whence packing was very easy on horse or foot.”

Goldstream
Goldstream

Goldseekers made their way to the stream that lay between the 12th and 13th mileposts on the five foot-wide Cowichan trail, about two or three miles from Langford’s Lake.

On October 20, 1863, one day after the discovery of gold was reported, the Colonist printed:

“One hundred people were headed for the diggings. A great many lost their way with some going down the trail to Sooke and others unable to follow the proper trail. Those who succeeded in reaching the mining grounds spoke in the highest terms of the appearance of the country as a gold-bearing region and expressed confidence in the ultimate results of efficient prospecting. A quantity of liquors and other things were sent out from town, and several applications for permission to sell the former were made.”

In just a few days, the population at Goldstream grew to over 300, including several Cariboo miners. Companies were formed and claims were staked. There was even talk of making the trail from Langford’s Lake to Goldstream a wagon road.

As the weeks went by, it became apparent that the gold was scattered through the quartz for some miles. Finding flecks of gold in a pan soon dwindled. Only with machinery was it possible to hit paydirt and the expense of reaching bedrock was greater than anticipated.

As interest in the area began to wane the following spring, there were a few companies said to have ore assessed which made their claims valuable.

In April, 1864, The Muir Company’s ore was assessed at $10,500 for gold and $24 for silver to the ton. “A great demand for shares in this company resulted with their value rising from $7 per share (of 15 feet) to $15.”

In response, W.A.G. Young, Colonial Secretary, rose in the House to request $4,000 for the purpose of constructing a road to Goldstream. Amor De Cosmos called the gentleman to order for he was not aware that Young represented the Governor any more than any other member of the house.

On July 17, 1864 the discovery of gold on the Leech River became known and the miners abandoned their claims at Goldstream.

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Free Grog for the Public Service

Grog was a common drink for gold rush miners. ‘Grog’ referred to second-rate rum or watered down rum. ‘Grog shops’ were nothing more than tents or shacks where grog was offered for sale.

wooden_barrelHow was grog made and how did it become so popular?

In the 1600s, there was a rush by the British to the ‘sugar islands’ in the Caribbean. The growth of the sugar industry encouraged local farmers to plant more sugar cane.  Cane juice was boiled down to a syrup, cooled and cured. The curing process involved storing the crystallizing sugar in clay pots with holes in their bases. What emerged was molasses. In the mid 17th century, there was no use for molasses and it was considered a nuisance. As time wore on, the growers found uses for molasses including a new alcoholic drink that became known as rum.

Demand for rum grew. By the early 18th century, the most popular West Indian destinations for merchant ships were Antigua or Barbados, since rum was most easily obtained in trade there. Watered down rum, known as grog, was given to sailors in the navy.

At Fort Victoria, the Hudson’s Bay Company gave 1 pint of molasses and 1/2 pint of rum to workers on December 25, 1848 in addition to their rations of beef, pork and flour.

The Lands & Works Department was run by the Royal Engineers until 1863. While they were stationed in British Columbia, sappers received liquor with their food rations.

The British Columbian published an article on June 29, 1864, titled ‘Free Grog for the Public Service':

We understand that a keg of brandy was admitted duty free last week on the ground that it was for the “public service,” being for the Surveyor-General’s department! Now, it appears to us that if those employed in the Surveyor-General’s department are entitled to free grog, why not to free “grub”? We look upon the principle as wrong, and the practice paltry. It is unusual for Government to furnish grog to those employed in the various departments. If those in this branch of the public service are so badly paid that they cannot afford the luxury of brandy let their pay be increased; or if Government must supply them let it be purchased here in the regular way, but do not let such a miserable, picayunish practise be carried on as bringing in brandy duty free for the civil service. Who ever heard of such a thing? There was too much of this under the old regime; but then there was rather more excuse for it in the Lands & Works Department, as it was filled by military vice, [who] were entitled to receive their grog as well as their rations. Now, however, the whole thing is changed, and one department is no more entitled to it than another. We hope to see all this sort of thing put a stop to.

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The Esquimalt by-election of 1861

During the gold rush years, elections in British Columbia were contentious affairs. The Esquimalt by-election of 1861 was a race between George Tomline Gordon and Amor De Cosmos.

Esquimalt
Esquimalt

Amor De Cosmos was also known legally as William Smith. Gordon’s allies raised the issue of Smith’s name and they argued that if William Smith ran as Amor De Cosmos his election would be contested. As a result, the official entry for Cosmos was “William Alexander Smith commonly known as Amor De Cosmos.”

“The day of polling arrived and great was the excitement in the little town of Esquimalt. The fences and walls were profusely decorated with placards and posters and the reds (Gordon) and the blues (De Cosmos) took possession of the village long before the polls opened at ten o’clock in the morning. The saloons were wide open, and horses, buggies, and express vans, and on one occasion a wheelbarrow, were used to take electors to the poll…from the amount of interest manifested one would have thought that the fate of the British Empire depended on the result of the election in that borough.”

As the day wore on it became evident that not all of the electors would vote. Several electors who had promised one side or the other failed to put in an appearance.

C.B. Young volunteered to bring James Moore down to the polling station. Moore was the chief clerk of Langley & Co., the pioneer chemists of Victoria, whose establishment stood on the corner of Boomerang alley and Yates Street.

Ten minutes before the voting was to close at four o’clock, Young and Moore arrived on horseback. Moore was led to the returning officer’s table, with Young on one side, and De Cosmos on the other. In those days, there were no paper ballots; electors stated the name of their chosen candidate.

The votes so far were at a tie:
George Tomline Gordon 10
William Alexander Smith, commonly known as Amor De Cosmos 10

“What is your name?” Moore was asked.
“James Moore.”
“Where do you reside?”
“In Victoria.”
“What is your qualification?”
[Moore was a property holder in Esquimalt and gave the address of the lot.]
“For whom do you vote?”
“Amor De Cosmos,” came the answer.

“A wild cheer burst from the Gordonites. Gordon himself…leaped up and down…in a state of frantic glee and excitement.” Gordon demanded that Sheriff Naylor put the vote down as being for ‘Amor De Cosmos’ and not ‘William Alexander Smith, commonly known as Amor De Cosmos’.

“No, no,” said Young. “He meant William Alexander Smith, commonly known as Amor De Cosmos,” didn’t you, Moore?”
“Yes,” said Moore.
“Too late,” said Sheriff Naylor. “The vote is recorded for Amor De Cosmos.”
At four o’clock the poll was closed and Naylor read the return as follows:

William Alexander Smith, commonly known as Amor De Cosmos…..10
George Tomline Gordon…10
Amor De Cosmos….1

“I declare a tie between Mr. Smith and Mr. Gordon and I cast my vote as returning officer in favour of Mr. Gordon whom I declare duly elected member for Esquimalt.”

George Tomline Gordon won the election by one vote.

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Pemmican and Berries in the BC gold rush

What did gold miners eat in the gold rush?  Many brought flour, salt pork and beans, but they soon saw value in the edible plants that were found growing near the trails such as ‘miner’s lettuce’. Vitamin-rich plants were often identified by names in the Chinook trading language. Here are just a few:

salmonberry
salmonberry

Olallie: salmonberry
Amote: wild strawberry
Camas: ‘sweet’ starchy bulb

Miners in the Cariboo gold rush would often stop to eat wild strawberries on their way to the gold diggings. Harry Jones recalled in his diary that he spent almost an afternoon eating his fill of strawberries while some others even became lost in their pursuit of the tasty berry.

Overlanders travelling through the Prairies would have purchased or traded for pemmican. The word ‘pemmican’ comes from the Cree language: pimii ‘fat’ + kan ‘prepared’.

Buffalo meat was dried and then braised over a fire. After, it was laid out on buffalo skin and pounded with stone mallets until it was tenderized. At this stage it was called ‘beat meat’. Bags made of buffalo skin, called taureaux or parflèches by fur traders, were sewn up and half-filled with ‘beat meat’ then buffalo fat was poured into the bag.  Dried berries such as chokecherries, saskatoonberries or golden currants were added.

Each bag was stirred before being sewn tight. Then it was rotated every so often to prevent the fat from settling to the bottom. Pemmican had a long shelf life and the bags even withstood being dumped overboard from a canoe.

‘Rubbaboo’ was a soup made by chopping pemmican, some wild onions, a few roots of prairie turnip and a chunk of salt pork. Some flour could have been added to make it the consistency of a stew.

The name ‘rubbaboo’ was derived from a combination of words from various languages: the Ojibwa and Cree words for soup, ‘nempup’ and ‘apu'; the Alongquin word for the meat that has been pounded (the first stage of the pemmican making process) ‘ruhiggan'; and finally a word from 18th Century naval slang, ‘burgoo’ which referred to oatmeal gruel eaten by sailors.

James Carnegie, who travelled across the Prairies in 1859 wrote about pemmican in his journal which was later published, “Saskatchewan and The Rocky Mountains: A Diary and Narrative of Travel.”

Pemmican is most endurable when uncooked. My men used to fry it with grease, sometimes stirring in flour, and making a flabby mess, called ‘rubbaboo’ which I found most uneatable. Carefully made pemmican, such as that flavoured with the Saskootoom berries…or the sheep-pemmican given us by the Rocky Mountain hunters, is nearly good—but, in two senses, a little of it goes a long way.

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Alfred Waddington and the Bute Inlet route

Bute Inlet
Bute Inlet

Major W. Downie and his partner Alex MacDonald were the first to officially explore the Bute Inlet. In June 1861 Downie travelled the Homathko River, that flows from the Chilcotin Plateau to the coast. Downie travelled the Homathko River by canoe and foot for a total of 33 miles when a steep canyon forced him back.

Alfred Waddington, a merchant and a promoter, was excited at the prospect of a possible new route to the gold fields. He convinced his fellow merchants in Victoria, who faced competition from New Westminster, to give Downie’s route along the Homathko River a chance.

Alfred Penderell Waddington was born in London, England in 1801 where he attended school. After his father died in 1818 Waddington moved to France where his brothers had business interests. In 1850, he set his sights on California and the gold rush there. Waddington sailed to San Francisco in May and set up a wholesale provision firm which was soon profitable. Upon hearing of the Fraser River gold rush in 1858, Waddington came north to Victoria to set up another grocery firm.

Alfred Waddington
Alfred Waddington

By the end of the year, Waddington had published his observations in a book titled, The Fraser Mines Vindicated; Or, the History of Four Months. In his book, Waddington was optimistic about future gold prospects and wrote “it is beyond doubt that the other kind of dry diggings exist plentifully in the north…”

On September 19, 1861, Waddington left Victoria on the steamer Henrietta, visited the head of Bute Inlet, made friends with certain native people in Desolation Sound, navigated by steamer for 8 miles up the Homathko River and then by canoe for some distance beyond. He left five men to explore further while he returned to Victoria.The five returned to Victoria near the end of October.

Within a week, Waddington arranged for a second party. This included Robert Homfray, a surveyor who had worked for the Colonial Survey Office under J.D. Pemberton. Homfray was in charge of the group which consisted of three HBC voyageurs – Cote, Balthazzar, and Bourchier, along with Henry McNeill and two natives.

Homfray and his crew set out on October 31, 1861. Nine days later they reached the entrance to Bute Inlet. Here they were kidnapped. Fortunately, they were rescued by a chief of the Cla-oosh people whose village was in Desolation Sound. Homfray convinced the chief to guide them through the Homathko River valley.

Robert Homfray told of one log jam, twenty feet high and half-a-mile long, stretching right across the river. They proceeded up the rapids, manhandling the canoe over slippery log-jams, often up to their waists in water. He could look up and see the blue ice of glaciers above the steep walls of the river. The chief turned back. Then the weather turned bitterly cold and the ice froze on their clothes, their beards and hair. After almost losing their canoe when the tow rope broke, they decided to cache it, and proceeded on foot.

Just when they were coming to the end of their food, they encountered a tall Native, his body painted jet-black, and vermillion-colored rings around his eyes. He was pointing an arrow straight at them. They were able to convince the Native that they were friendly and they needed food. After giving them a dinner, they were told to return the way they had come. For Homfray and the others the trip back to the coast was worse than they could have imagined.

Their canoe was wrecked in a log jam, and most of their supplies lost. They salvaged some gear, including matches and two axes. It took them four days on a makeshift raft to reach the head of Bute Inlet and their buried provisions. They had to eat with their fingers and shared one empty baking-powder tin for drinking.

After riding half-way down Bute Inlet in a hollowed-out log, they were eventually rescued by the same Cla-oosh chief who brought them to his village. He later helped them return to Victoria. They had been away two months.

Waddington was more determined than ever to pursue the route. Before Homfray and his party returned, Waddington wrote a letter to Governor James Douglas and described  the Homathko as a “fine level valley, from two to four miles wide, and navigable for forty miles from the mouth for steamers of four or five feet draft . . . without a single rock or other serious impediment”.

Homathko River
Homathko River
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Muskets and Revolvers in the Gold Rush

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From its beginning in 1670, the Hudson’s Bay Company traded muskets to First Nations trappers for beaver pelts. Many of the firearms introduced during the early fur trade period were of inferior quality, and were known to sometimes blow up in the hands of the person using it. Often times, these trade guns were returned to an HBC post where a blacksmith would make repairs. Supplies of amunition were also relatively costly and had to be purchased through trade. For these reasons, traditional forms of weaponry and hunting equipment continued to be used side by side with firearms, and depending on the circumstances, the guns were less effective than the bow and arrow.

musket
musket

Factories in Birmingham and London, England manufactured trade guns for the Hudson’s Bay Company. A distinctive feature of these guns was the dragon or serpent shaped side plate.  This was considered a mark of quality and most Natives would not trade for a gun that did not have the serpent plate.

In later years, the Hudson’s Bay Company began to order firearms with percussion caps for use as trade goods. The HBC guns were made so that a hunter could shoot while wearing a glove or even a mitten. As well as the serpent sideplate, on the gun itself was an indented image of a fox, identical to that of the fox on the Hudson’s Bay Company’s coat of arms.

revolver
revolver

Revolvers were brought north by the American goldseekers. This type of gun allowed the user to fire it multiple times without reloading. This was a big change from the single-barreled smoothbores of the horse-pistol type. The caliber of the pistol was the same as the rifle or musket carried by the owner, so that a single bullet mold could serve both guns.

Here is an advertisement from the June 24, 1859 edition Daily Colonist:

35 tierces [casks] of  fine corned beef at 7 cents per pound. 40 Colt’s Revolvers at prices less than in California, suitable for parties fitting up for the North.
Apply to H. Holbrook at the Hotel de France, or at the wharf of J.T. Little, Wharf St.

Rifle muskets were another type of gun used during the BC gold rush. Volunteer militia groups known as ‘rifle companies’ were actively promoted. The town of Victoria had two.

In September 1864, a concert was held at the Victoria Theatre as a fundraiser for the Victoria Rifle Volunteer Corps.  In a review of the concert, the British Colonist newspaper wrote that the theatre was elegantly decorated with muskets, bayonets and flags of all nations. The program included “Rifle Fever” sung by the Germania Sing Verein.

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HMS Plumper and the Rowdies of Victoria

In 1857, Captain George Richards of the British Navy sailed to Vancouver Island on his ship the HMS Plumper. Richards was given instructions to chart the international water boundary as well as the coastline and nearby islands of Vancouver Island. Plumper carried a scientific library with reference books on botany and natural history. The ship’s surgeon was in charge of collecting and preserving specimens. There was also a team of navigation and surveying specialists.

HMS Plumper
HMS Plumper (on the right)

It wasn’t the sort of ship that was supposed to take part when a crisis arose, but there was at least one occasion when Captain Richards and the crew of the Plumper were called upon to help diffuse a situation. This was especially true in the early days of the Fraser River gold rush when Fort Victoria was overwhelmed with gold seekers.

In its August 9, 1858 issue, the Daily Alta California printed a letter from Victoria with the title “The Rowdies In Victoria”

Some excitement has been created here in consequence of a most daring outrage having been committed, by a band of rowdies, in rescuing a prisoner from the police, and rather roughly handling the Sheriff. At least three thousand persons were collected, and the police force being small in number, were compelled for the time being to let their prisoner slide. The circumstances being reported to the Governor, a dispatch was immediately sent off to the man-of-war.

At midnight, H. M. S. Plumper entered Victoria harbor, from Esquimalt, and landed one hundred men. On the following morning the Plumper anchored within two cables length of the town, prepared to give practical demonstration if any resistance was offered. A small police force re- arrested the man, who is now awaiting examination.

The proceedings on the part of the Government exhibited the fact—that will go far to preserve order for the future—that they are not only determined to put down rowdyism, but that they have sufficient strength to command obedience to the laws. The conduct of the Government in this instance has been cordially responded to by the entire community.

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John Wright architect of Victorian homes in the gold rush

John Wright was one of the first architects in Victoria.

John Wright architect
John Wright architect (1830 – 1915)

Born in Scotland in 1830, Wright immigrated to Canada West (Ontario) in 1845.  Together with his brother-in-law George Sanders, they set up an architect firm, Wright & Sanders in San Francisco.

Wright moved to Victoria in 1859 and his first commission was to design the tower, iron staircase and lightkeeper’s house for Fisguard Lighthouse at nearby Esquimalt.

In the early 1860s, Victoria went through a building boom, and Wright was kept busy, designing homes for wealthy Victorians.

Wright’s residential designs in Victoria were a reflection of the ‘Picturesque’ style which was popular in California  throughout the 1860s. The Picturesque style was a combination of Gothic and Italian villa styles.

He designed a home in 1863 for Richard Carr which was made mostly of California redwood. The Richard Carr house (birthplace of artist Emily Carr) is the only pure example of the Italian Villa style, characterized by its curved window head and cornice bracketing. It is one of the outstanding residential structures surviving from the 1860s in western Canada.

Among his designs were the Jewish Synagogue on Blanshard Street (1863) and the James Bissett house at 138-140 Government Street (1861).

His last project was Angela College on Burdett Avenue, a girls’ collegiate school named for its benefactor Angela Burdett-Coutts. (Between 1860 and 1863 Coutts had sponsored three boatloads of single women who were transported to the colony to alleviate the shortage of females.)

The economy in Victoria began to wane in 1866 and Wright returned to San Francisco. He became the first president of the Pacific Coast Association of Architects in 1881.

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