Category Archives: Food

1860: How to make butter without a churn

New bread and fresh butter was something worth travelling for in the Fraser River gold rush. How rare was butter?

On July 3, 1858 the Daily Alta California reported:

“At Fort Yale there is little or nothing to be had for love or money. Mining and cooking utensils are very scarce, and enormous prices are obtained for them. The Hudson’s Bay Company had seized the mining implements of some miners on Hill’s Bar, for violating the law in regard to trafficking, which excited considerable indignation among the miners.”

For those who could afford the luxury of butter it was imported by ship in cases from California and Minnesota.

By the time gold miners were heading north to the Cariboo, roadhouses began advertising butter.

Peter Dunlevy and Jim Sellers bought a roadhouse in 1861 from two packers who had built it a year before near Horsefly. Generous meals of fresh beef, mutton, lake trout, churned butter, and locally grown vegetables earned their roadhouse a reputation as the best stopping house in the Cariboo.

Many gold miners made their own bread and some even attempted to make their own butter. When they got together many discussed bush cookery and shared tips with each other.

Occasionally, the British Colonist printed “receipts” based on the old French word for recipes.

Here is one printed in February 1860 on how to make butter without a churn:

How to make butter

How to make butter

“After straining the milk, set it away for about twelve hours, for the cream to rise. (Milk dishes ought to have good strong handles to lift them by.) After standing as above, set the milk without disturbing it, on the stove, let it remain until you observe the coating of cream on the surface assume a wrinkled appearance, but be careful it does not boil, as should this be the case, the cream will mix with the milk and cannot again be collected.”

“Now set it away till quite cold, and then skim off the cream, mixing it with as little milk as possible. When sufficient cream is collected proceed to make it into butter as follows:

Take a wooden bowl or any suitable vessel, and having first scalded and then rinsed it with cold spring water, place the cream into it.

Now let the operator hold his hand in water as hot as can be borne for a few seconds, then plunge it into cold water for about a minute, and at once commence to agitate the cream by a gentle circular motion.In five minutes, or less, the butter will have come, when of course, it must be washed and salted according to taste, and our correspondent guarantees that no better butter can be made by the best churn invented.”

George Blair wrote in his diary that his friend “Bill rolled up his sleeves and went at making bread and Kelsie Oregon Butter which I mean to teach the Canadian Ladies to make when I go home as it tasted first rate.”

Ship stories: how passengers travelled to BC in the gold rush

How did most people come to British Columbia during the gold rush? They came by ship.

Tynemouth 1862

In 1862, Charles Redfern, a passenger on the Tynemouth wrote about some of the problems on board the 1500 ton steamship. They ran into a storm not long after they left England which saw  a cow and several pigs get washed overboard by a big wave. Then the coal passers who had been complaining of bad conditions stopped working altogether. The ship’s captain put them in irons and instructed the travellers to fuel the engines. For an entire month, the male passengers took turns filling wheelbarrows with coal, pushing them to the bunkers while another mutiny erupted and more were put in irons. By this time the ship was in the South Pacific with good trade winds. The steam was shut off and volunteers were called to man the sails.

Just before the ship sailed into the Falkland Islands, she ran into another storm and several large stacks of railway ties and iron tanks broke free of their moorings.

The Tynemouth docked at Esquimalt on September 17, 1862.

Passenger Contract

Everyone on board the Tynemouth was given a ‘passenger contract’ which said that each passenger would be given three quarts of water daily and a weekly allowance of provisions:

5 ¼ lb. Biscuit
½ lb. Soup
1 lb. Preserved Meat
1 ½ lb. Indian beef
½ lb. Preserved & Salt Fish
2 lb. Flour
1 lb. Oatmeal
6 oz. Suet
½ lb. Rice
½ lb. Raisins & Currants
2/3 pint Peas
½ lb. Preserved Potato
1 lb. Raw sugar
1 3/4 lb. Tea
3 ½ lb. Coffee
6 oz. butter
2 oz. salt
½ oz. mustard
¼ oz. pepper
1 gill vinegar*
6 oz. lime juice
21 qts. water

“When Fresh Beef is issued, 1 lb. to each Adult per day will be allowed; there will be no Flour, Raisins, Peas, Suet or Vinegar, during the issue of Fresh Meat. 1 lb. of Fresh Potatoes may be substituted for ¼ lb. Preserved Potatoes.”

Third class passengers were given rations and they were expected to prepare their own meals. They were allowed to cook their meal in the galley. The cook supplied hot water for tea, coffee, or drinking purposes.

Thames City 1858

The clipper ship, Thames City, carried 118 Sappers (Royal Engineers), 31 women and 34 children on board. The Thames City had a better voyage (no mutinies and no one in irons) but it was still arduous. This group of Royal Engineers and their families left England on October 10, 1858 and arrived in Esquimalt via Cape Horn on April 12, 1859 after a voyage lasting 187 days. They formed a band and held plays on board. They also brought with them a printing press used to produce a weekly publication, “The Emigrant Soldier’s Gazette and Cape Horn Chronicle” read aloud each Saturday evening.

The final edition of the Gazette included a “Farewell Ditty” that described conditions on board:

Farewell thick biscuits and thin pea soup,
Farewell the suet, grog, and junk,
One was weak, the other stunk.
Farewell to the hen coop, and lonely duck,
Farewell to Longboat Square and muck,
Farewell to Laundry Lane and Galleys,
We’ll cook our grub in glades and valleys…

Farewell to hammocks, farewell to the clews,
Farewell to the would-be Irish stews,
Farewell to the cockroaches and thieving cats,
And a long farewell to those horrible rats.


Note: a “gill” (pronounced jill) is a quarter of a pint. See my post on grog (a mixture of rum and water). “Junk” refers to salt beef or meat. “Clews” are the cords by which hammocks are suspended.

Cariboo Miner remembers Quesnel Forks at Christmas

It took six days by horseback to get to Quesnel Forks from Lillooet. The town of Quesnel Forks, located where the Cariboo River meets the Quesnel River,  was laid out by the Royal Engineers in 1861. Quesnel Forks was known then as Quesnelle Forks or “the Forks”. It was a supply centre for the many camps in the area including the large camp at Antler Creek.

Quesnel Forks saw some famous people include William “Dutch Bill” Dietz, (Williams Creek is named for him), W. R. “Doc” Keithley of Keithley Creek and Antler Creek fame, Billy Barker of Barkerville, John Rose, and James May.

Andrew Jackson Abbott and T. S. Handley ran a restaurant and hotel in Quesnel Forks. A Cariboo miner recalled Abbott’s restaurant at Christmas:

“It was a small one room wooden shack. The furniture was all homemade…In the centre of the restaurant was a six-legged table constructed of whip-sawn pine…The culinary utensils were few and far between, but a roaring fire blazed on the hearth and made us feel happy.

Pork and beans was our chief dish, but not our only one; for we had some frozen beef, boiled, roasted, stewed and fried. The boiling pieces were knocked off with an axe, as were those intended for the stew pan, but the steaks were cut with a saw. [The meat was so frozen ] that we could scarcely tell whether we were working through bones or flesh until the frost thawed out. Then we had plum duff without the plums; plainduff we called it. Next came slapjacks or pancakes, tea and coffee, whisky hot and whisky cold, brandy neat and two tins of sardines…

The chairman of the evening was friend Mike Brown… seated on an empty biscuit box supported by a nail keg…The cook of the pork and beans was complimented by the fellow who looked after the slapjacks, who in turn, had a good word to say for the plainduff man. Then Tom Barry put in a claim for his whisky hot, which was duly acknowledged by the boss of the stew and all the rest of us…

1861 Christmas at the Abbott Hotel and Restaurant in Quesnel Forks – one big table

Backpacking food on the BC gold rush trail

What did gold seekers eat on the way to the gold diggings? In 1862, there weren’t many roadhouses because the Cariboo Waggon Road was just being built. Most of the gold rush miners were backpacking food if they were to survive the long journey from Victoria to the camps in the Cariboo region. Carrying food on one’s back could get really heavy. That’s why compressed, dried vegetables were so appealing – that even stands true for today’s hikers.

advertisement for dried vegetables March 27, 1862

Victoria advertisement for dried vegetables March 27, 1862

This advertisement from the British Colonist reads:

Dried Vegetables. On hand and for sale a few cases of Superior Dried Vegetables.
From their extreme portability, these are very desirable for conveyance to the Mines.
A small case weighing about 100 lbs. only containing nearly 1800 rations. They sold
for a very high price in Cariboo last year. For sale by JANION & GREEN.”

In 1846, a few years before the French Revolution, the head gardener for King Louis-Philippe invented a process by which kiln-dried vegetables, herbs, and fruits could be compressed. It turned out that this invention, which vastly reduced the original weight and bulk of the food, was a valued necessity during the Crimean War (1853-1856) when both British and French troops had to keep well fed and travel at the same time. The vegetables were mixed, dried and compressed under rules laid down by the International Anglo-French Military & Naval Medical Commission. The renowned chef Alexis Soyer was the Chief Inspector of Army Cookery.

Vegetables were cleaned, washed, peeled, sliced and slightly steamed before being dried in kilns and on trays where they exposed to hot dry air. Once dried they were mixed according to the proportions suggested by the military commission:
Potato: 40
Carrot: 30
Cabbage: 10
Turnip: 10
Seasoning herbs (onion, leek, celery, parsley, parsnip, etc): 10

The vegetables were then compressed by machine to one-eighth of their original bulk into molds where they were formed into square slabs almost an inch thick and grooved so they could be divided evenly afterward at the rate of one ounce per ration.

The Hudson’s Bay Company imported compressed dried vegetables especially onions which were considered good for the stomach when made into soup. Also onions were considered a good remedy for those who had drank too much liquor.

fruitpack

1862: Backpacking food on the gold rush trail

Food of the Fraser Canyon: Salmon Oil and Saskatoon Berries

During their epic journey in 1808, Simon Fraser and his Northwest Company crew were treated to the food of the Fraser Canyon,  including salmon oil and salmon eggs.

Salmon was a major source of fats and oils. How did they extract the salmon oil? This was done by pounding out a rock to form a large hollow. Next, the hollow was heated with hot rocks from a fire. When the hollow was hot enough to boil water, the rocks were removed and replaced with salmon heads. The salmon heads boiled there for a day and then it was allowed to cool down. A yellowish layer formed on top, similar to cream on a milk pan. This was skimmed off. Below that was the salmon oil which was then scooped into salmon skin bottles. All the bones that were left were soft enough to chew. The oil was stored for winter use.

Children would snack on the soft salmon bones from the hole after they had been cooked down.

Simon Fraser also enjoyed salmon eggs, which was considered a delicacy. People buried salmon eggs in the ground in birch bark baskets. They were kept in the ground until early Spring after the ground had thawed. These were often served with dried Saskatoon berries, noted for their sweet flavour.

Dried salmon was sometimes stored in underground cache pits. These cache pits were dug within their winter homes (dome shaped structures with roof entrances) and lined with grass and pine needles. In other places, dried salmon was kept in wooden boxes on raised platforms or in a tree. The boxes had spaces to allow for the wind to circulate around the fish.

Here is a page from my graphic novel in progress: A Cartoon Introduction to the Fraser River Gold Rush:

Food of the Fraser Canyon

Food of the Fraser Canyon – Cartoon Introduction to the Fraser River Gold Rush – graphic novel

Barrels of Beans and Bacon

[dropcap]O[/dropcap]ne of the main items to be imported into the colony during the gold rush were barrels of beans and bacon. Beans and bacon were considered food staples back then. As one goldseeker remarked:

“At the inn here we enjoyed what our Yankee companions called a ‘square meal,’ of the generally characteristic fare of the colony, bacon and beans; the latter are abundantly imported in barrels from the States. Here also, after our toilsome march, we indulged in a good wash, the only really cheap comfort obtainable in British Columbia.”

Not only did merchants import kegs of bacon and barrels of beans but also:
crushed sugar
Golden Gate Flour
Hope Butter
Rio Coffee
J & H Lard
Black Tea
Turk’s Island Salt
mats of China Rice
boxes of Macy’s candles
Harvey’s Scotch Whiskey in Puncheons
Holland Gin in Pipes
Champagne Cider in Barrels and Kegs
Edinborough Ale in Stone Jugs or bulk
Bottled Porter
India Pale Ale in pints and quarts
dried apples
hot whiskey punches
barley
bran

Viscount Milton and Dr. Cheadle stayed at J.D. Cusheon’s hotel in the Cariboo district of British Columbia in 1863 at the height of the gold rush:

Our quarters at Cusheon’s Hotel were vile. A blanket spread on the floor of a loft was our bedroom, but the swarms of lice which infested the place and rendered sleep almost impossible, and made us think with regret on the soft turf of the prairie, or a mossy couch in the woods. The fare, limited to beefsteaks, bread and dried apples, was wretchedly cooked and frightfully expensive. Beef was worth fifty cents or two shillings a pound, flour the same, a “drink” of anything except water was half a dollar, nor could the smallest article, even a box of matches, be bought for less than a “quarter” -one shilling. Before we reached Williams Creek we paid a dollar and a quarter, or five shillings, for a single pint bottle of stout.

Stuck in the frozen Fraser River

[dropcap]D[/dropcap]ecember 1858 was so cold a sternwheeler got stuck in the frozen Fraser River.

Many gold rush miners who hadn’t reached pay dirt were stuck where they were at camps and bars. A Fraser River correspondent to the Daily Alta California had this to say:

Many who have been at work here for months, are destitute of means not only to lay in their winter stores, but even to buy their daily food. I have never seen so many “strapped” men in any part of the world as here…

The frozen steamer Enterprise

The steamer Enterprise was stuck in the frozen Fraser River

When the steamer Enterprise became stuck in the ice near the mouth of the Harrison River most of the 125 passengers decided to abandon ship and travel by foot. The Victoria Gazette reported that at least two passengers froze to death:

“There being no provisions or accommodations on board for so large a company for any length of time, about 100 of the passengers and one or two of the officers deserted the steamer, determined to make their way into Langley on foot through the woods. Without food – in many instances poorly clad – with snow and ice on the ground, these desperate men commenced their sad journey. For three days they wandered through the woods, shivering, foot-sore, and almost starving, in the rain and through the sleet and ice. In the meantime, the weather had moderated a little, and the rain had softened the ice in the river.

The Enterprise got free again, and ran up and down the river blowing her whistle and firing her guns to attract the attention of those on shore. Here and there she picked up a straggler, who had wandered to the river banks, perhaps to die. On the third day, when about five miles from Langley, she came upon the great majority of passengers, who, feeling it impossible to proceed further, had camped on the bank to wait assistance from the town for which they had sent by four of their hardiest men.

After taking up her passengers, the Enterprise continued on to Langley, where she arrived in a couple of hours…

For those people fortunate enough to make it to Victoria with gold dust in their pockets, they could enjoy a nice meal. The Yates Street Chop House in Victoria advertised their “Christmas Bill of Fare”:

Soups: Oyster, Chicken, Gambo, Mutton Broth

Fish: Boiled Halibut, Boiled Flounder, with Oyster Sauce

Boiled: Ham, Tongue, Chicken, Turkey with butter sauce

Entries:
Oyster pies, Lamb Cutlets, with green peas, Selmes of Ducks, Venison Pastry, Fricassed Chickens

Roasts: Beef, Pork, Mutton, Venison, Turkey, Geese, Chickens.

Vegetables of the season. Pastry and Desserts. Pies assorted. Cakes assorted.

Plum Pudding, Blanc Mange, and Jelly.

 

Donald Fraser and Land Speculation in the BC Gold Rush

When the Fraser River gold rush was underway so was land speculation. One of the least known figures involved in land speculation in the BC Gold Rush was Donald Fraser.

Fraser was born in Scotland and was a classmate of Alexander Grant Dallas, a future son-in-law of Governor James Douglas. Fraser came to Victoria in 1858, whereupon James Douglas appointed him to the Executive Council of Vancouver Island.

The Hudson’s Bay Company thought that if it could entice gold rush miners to come to British Columbia then it would raise the value of land. What they needed was someone to promote the ‘gold diggings’ to the masses abroad.  As a correspondent for the Times of London, Donald Fraser was the ideal candidate to spread this propaganda.

According to Fraser, miners were finding gold without much effort:

The work is not heavy; any ordinary man can do it. The time at work is generally 10 hours. Every man works much or little, according to the dictates of his own sweet will. This independency is one of the chief charms of the miner’s life. Independence and hope make up the sum of his happiness. The cost of living is $1-a-day. To wash 250 buckets of ‘dirt’ is a short day’s work. The bucket is a common wooden water pail, rather small size. Went up to two men at a place by themselves ‘clearing out’ their day’s work. They ‘guessed’ their amalgam was worth $21 to $22.

In the summer of 1858, James Douglas travelled with Donald Fraser to Fort Yale. Here, even Fraser had to admit that the living conditions were primitive. At Hill’s Bar, Fraser found “a gang of miners dining on fried bacon and potatoes cooked à  la Maître d’Hotel, eating out of the frying pan  in which the edibles were prepared, set upon the stump of a tree…”

Fraser also suggested there were stagecoaches on the as yet incomplete wagon road. Many miners were disappointed to discover that they would  have to walk 400 or 500 miles farther carrying a load on their backs.

Not only was Donald Fraser a key political figure, but in a few short years, he became one of the largest land holders on Vancouver Island.

In 1866 Fraser returned to England. In London he joined a group including Gilbert Malcolm Sproat and Alexander Grant Dallas which wielded a lot of political influence. The group opposed the union of Vancouver Island with British Columbia in 1866 and helped to secure the capital of BC at Victoria in 1868.

Stamp_FortYale

Cattle Drovers of the Gold Rush

Within two months after the first miners crossed the International boundary from California, the renowned Oregonian packer ‘General’ Joel Palmer crossed the border at Osoyoos and travelled through the Okanagan Valley and on to the Thompson Valley with a cattle drive and wagons pulled by oxen.

HBC Brigade Trails

HBC Brigade Trails

The earlier cattle drives from Oregon to the goldfields followed the old Hudson’s Bay Company Brigade Trail along the Columbia River to the mouth of the Okanogan River and then north to Okanogan Lake, turning westward near Vernon and through Grande Prairie (now Westwold) to the Thompson River and west to Fort Kamloops; then along the south side of Kamloops to Savona’s Ferry, crossing the river there and continuing westward to Cache Creek; northward along the Bonaparte River to contact the Brigade Trail from the north.

Later, numerous other trails were defined to the coast and Okanagan, notably the all-Canadian trail developed after the Oregon Territory boundary was settled.

In 1859, Joe Greaves drove sheep from Oregon to Olympia,Washington, from where they were shipped to Fort Yale on the Fraser River and then trailed 250 miles along the Brigade Trail to the Cariboo.

The cattle drovers were mostly Americans who, for the most part, did not settle in the country.

Digging roots at Lytton

In the book, “Our Tellings: Interior Salish Stories of the Nla’kapmx People”, Christine Bobb describes how they went up to Petáni  [Botanie Valley] to gather roots during the month of August. The women dug roots using a special tool known as a pátsa, (pronounced pa´cha in Stl’atl’imx and Secwepemc).

The size of a pátsa ranged from 30 to 120cm (approximately a foot to four feet) in length. It had a curved tip and a cross piece near the top. Depending on the size of the pátsa, a person would use one hand or two to press it into the soil.

First peoples of the Interior made digging sticks from hard wood such as Black Hawthorn or Saskatoon Berry or of mule deer or elk antler.

Stick for digging roots

Stick for digging roots

“My mother dried it [roots] while I watched, but I helped her get through drying and fixing it. Then she stored it away.

When it was almost wintertime, my mother cooked it in the dirt. First she dug the ground, then she put down the wood and, finally, the rocks. When finished, the wood was burnt and the rocks were red hot. Then she buried it with dirt — not too much — and blanketed it with fir boughs, maple leaves, and dry pine needles. That’s how the roots were cooked for putting away.

They made licorice, which they washed in water. It was washed in water until it was clean and had turned white. Then it was put in a basket and taken to be cooked. Everything was cooked this way: sk’ámats [roots of the yellow avalanche lily], tiger lily, cinquefoil, tatúwen [corms of wild potatoes]. When wiýe [black tree lichen] is cooked it’s really good – it tastes just like licorice…”

Annie York wrote that they would “soak the wiýe so many days and wash it clean and then they dig the earth. They build a fire first, and when the earth is hot they dig it out and put wiýe on after it’s washed. And they put it there, put rocks on the bottom, lay sticks side by side, pour the water in, they cover it up good. It has to be there for about twenty-four hours.”